In 2021 as per the Hedley Environmental Index from the School of Public Health, University of Hong Kong the recorded negative impact to the economy was HK $20 billion. These costs can be categorized as the direct costs of healthcare; the indirect costs due to lost productivity and the intangible costs attributable to pain and suffering (defined as “loss of healthy life value”). It is estimated that 1300 premature deaths can be avoided if the air quality of Hong Kong is improved.